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Blood in Urine (Haematuria)

Blood in the urine is divided into visible and invisible (or found on testing)

Visible blood usually needs urgent investigations, especially in anyone over the age of 40, but often at any age.

Invisible blood can be a normal finding for some individuals. However, if it is found on two separate occasions or with other urinary symptoms, then this also requires investigations for most people over the age of 50 or younger if there are risk factors such as smoking.


Lower urinary tract symptoms

These divide broadly into storage and voiding symptoms.

Storage symptoms are frequency, nocturia (getting up at night) urgency and urge leakage. These are common with an infection but can require treatment if they persist without or after an infection. These symptoms can imitate infection.

Voiding symptoms are hesitancy or slowness to start voiding followed by a slow flow and the need to strain, along with incomplete emptying. This can be due to a blockage, which for men, is most likely due to enlargement of the prostate.

Pneumaturia /solid debris

Very occasionally recurrent UTIs are caused by an abnormal connection between the bowel and the bladder. The patient may notice they pass air / flatus with the urine and there may also be some debris visible.


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